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The Euro is used as a trading currency in Cuba, North Korea, and Syria and several currencies are pegged to it. Value of Obsolete National Currencies Euro bank notes and coins began circulating in with old notes and coins gradually being withdrawn from circulation.
The precise dates that each old currency ceased being legal tender and their official fixed rates are shown in the table below.
Spelling and Capitalization The official spelling of the EUR currency unit is "euro", with a lower case "e"; however, the common industry practice is to spell it "Euro", with a capital "E".
Many languages have different official spellings for the Euro, which also may or may not coincide with general use. These sites include recent news on the Euro as well as issues like implementation, spelling, legislation, and more.
The design for the euro banknotes has common designs on both sides. The design was created by the Austrian designer Robert Kalina.
Each banknote has its own colour and is dedicated to an artistic period of European architecture. The front of the note features windows or gateways while the back has bridges, symbolising links between states in the union and with the future.
While the designs are supposed to be devoid of any identifiable characteristics, the initial designs by Robert Kalina were of specific bridges, including the Rialto and the Pont de Neuilly , and were subsequently rendered more generic; the final designs still bear very close similarities to their specific prototypes; thus they are not truly generic.
The monuments looked similar enough to different national monuments to please everyone. Capital within the EU may be transferred in any amount from one state to another.
All intra-Union transfers in euro are treated as domestic transactions and bear the corresponding domestic transfer costs.
Of the symbol, the Commission stated . The European Commission also specified a euro logo with exact proportions and foreground and background colour tones.
The euro was established by the provisions in the Maastricht Treaty. In the Maastricht Treaty, the United Kingdom and Denmark were granted exemptions per their request from moving to the stage of monetary union which resulted in the introduction of the euro.
For macroeconomic theory, see below. The name "euro" was officially adopted in Madrid on 16 December Due to differences in national conventions for rounding and significant digits, all conversion between the national currencies had to be carried out using the process of triangulation via the euro.
The definitive values of one euro in terms of the exchange rates at which the currency entered the euro are shown on the right. The rates were determined by the Council of the European Union , [note 8] based on a recommendation from the European Commission based on the market rates on 31 December The European Currency Unit was an accounting unit used by the EU, based on the currencies of the member states; it was not a currency in its own right.
They could not be set earlier, because the ECU depended on the closing exchange rate of the non-euro currencies principally the pound sterling that day.
The procedure used to fix the conversion rate between the Greek drachma and the euro was different since the euro by then was already two years old.
While the conversion rates for the initial eleven currencies were determined only hours before the euro was introduced, the conversion rate for the Greek drachma was fixed several months beforehand.
The currency was introduced in non-physical form traveller's cheques , electronic transfers, banking, etc. Their exchange rates were locked at fixed rates against each other.
The notes and coins for the old currencies, however, continued to be used as legal tender until new euro notes and coins were introduced on 1 January The changeover period during which the former currencies' notes and coins were exchanged for those of the euro lasted about two months, until 28 February The official date on which the national currencies ceased to be legal tender varied from member state to member state.
The earliest date was in Germany, where the mark officially ceased to be legal tender on 31 December , though the exchange period lasted for two months more.
Even after the old currencies ceased to be legal tender, they continued to be accepted by national central banks for periods ranging from several years to indefinitely the latter for Austria, Germany, Ireland, Estonia and Latvia in banknotes and coins, and for Belgium, Luxembourg, Slovenia and Slovakia in banknotes only.
The earliest coins to become non-convertible were the Portuguese escudos , which ceased to have monetary value after 31 December , although banknotes remain exchangeable until Following the U.
The authors conclude that the crisis "is as much political as economic" and the result of the fact that the euro area lacks the support of "institutional paraphernalia and mutual bonds of solidarity of a state".
With all but one Denmark of the remaining EU members obliged to join when economic conditions permit, together with future members of the EU, the enlargement of the eurozone is set to continue.
The euro has been used as a trading currency in Cuba since ,  Syria since ,  and Venezuela since In , Zimbabwe abandoned its local currency and used major currencies instead, including the euro and the United States dollar.
Since its introduction, the euro has been the second most widely held international reserve currency after the U.
Over this period, the share held in U. The euro inherited and built on the status of the Deutsche Mark as the second most important reserve currency.
The possibility of the euro becoming the first international reserve currency has been debated among economists. Outside the eurozone, a total of 22 countries and territories that do not belong to the EU have currencies that are directly pegged to the euro including 14 countries in mainland Africa CFA franc , two African island countries Comorian franc and Cape Verdean escudo , three French Pacific territories CFP franc and three Balkan countries, Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark , Bulgaria Bulgarian lev and North Macedonia Macedonian denar.
With the exception of Bosnia, Bulgaria, North Macedonia which had pegged their currencies against the Deutsche Mark and Cape Verde formerly pegged to the Portuguese escudo , all of these non-EU countries had a currency peg to the French Franc before pegging their currencies to the euro.
Pegging a country's currency to a major currency is regarded as a safety measure, especially for currencies of areas with weak economies, as the euro is seen as a stable currency, prevents runaway inflation and encourages foreign investment due to its stability.
Within the EU several currencies are pegged to the euro, mostly as a precondition to joining the eurozone. Since , stamps issued by the Sovereign Military Order of Malta have been denominated in euros, although the Order's official currency remains the Maltese scudo.
In economics, an optimum currency area, or region OCA or OCR , is a geographical region in which it would maximise economic efficiency to have the entire region share a single currency.
There are two models, both proposed by Robert Mundell : the stationary expectations model and the international risk sharing model.
Mundell himself advocates the international risk sharing model and thus concludes in favour of the euro. Before the lates recession it was considered unlikely that a state would leave the euro or the whole zone would collapse.
John Lanchester, writing for The New Yorker , explains it:. The guiding principle of the currency, which opened for business in , were supposed to be a set of rules to limit a country's annual deficit to three per cent of gross domestic product, and the total accumulated debt to sixty per cent of G.
It was a nice idea, but by the two biggest economies in the euro zone, Germany and France, had broken the rules for three years in a row.
The most obvious benefit of adopting a single currency is to remove the cost of exchanging currency, theoretically allowing businesses and individuals to consummate previously unprofitable trades.
For consumers, banks in the eurozone must charge the same for intra-member cross-border transactions as purely domestic transactions for electronic payments e.
Financial markets on the continent are expected to be far more liquid and flexible than they were in the past.
The reduction in cross-border transaction costs will allow larger banking firms to provide a wider array of banking services that can compete across and beyond the eurozone.
However, although transaction costs were reduced, some studies have shown that risk aversion has increased during the last 40 years in the Eurozone.
Another effect of the common European currency is that differences in prices—in particular in price levels—should decrease because of the law of one price.
Differences in prices can trigger arbitrage , i. Therefore, prices on commonly traded goods are likely to converge, causing inflation in some regions and deflation in others during the transition.
Some evidence of this has been observed in specific eurozone markets. Before the introduction of the euro, some countries had successfully contained inflation, which was then seen as a major economic problem, by establishing largely independent central banks.
The euro has come under criticism due to its regulation, lack of flexibility and rigidity towards sharing member States on issues such as nominal interest rates.
While increased liquidity may lower the nominal interest rate on the bond, denominating the bond in a currency with low levels of inflation arguably plays a much larger role.
A credible commitment to low levels of inflation and a stable debt reduces the risk that the value of the debt will be eroded by higher levels of inflation or default in the future, allowing debt to be issued at a lower nominal interest rate.
Unfortunately, there is also a cost in structurally keeping inflation lower than in the United States, UK, and China. The result is that seen from those countries, the euro has become expensive, making European products increasingly expensive for its largest importers.
Hence export from the eurozone becomes more difficult. In general, those in Europe who own large amounts of euros are served by high stability and low inflation.
A monetary union means states in that union lose the main mechanism of recovery of their international competitiveness by weakening depreciating their currency.
When wages become too high compared to productivity in exports sector then these exports become more expensive and they are crowded out from the market within a country and abroad.
This drive fall of employment and output in the exports sector and fall of trade and current account balances. Fall of output and employment in tradable goods sector may be offset by the growth of non-exports sectors, especially in construction and services.
Increased purchases abroad and negative current account balance can be financed without a problem as long as credit is cheap.
A state in a monetary union cannot use weakening of currency to recover its international competitiveness. To achieve this a state has to reduce prices, including wages deflation.
This could result in high unemployment and lower incomes as it was during European sovereign-debt crisis. This may be because of the inclusion of the Financial crisis of — and ongoing integration within the EU.
The euro has most specifically stimulated investment in companies that come from countries that previously had weak currencies.
The introduction of the euro has led to extensive discussion about its possible effect on inflation. In the short term, there was a widespread impression in the population of the eurozone that the introduction of the euro had led to an increase in prices, but this impression was not confirmed by general indices of inflation and other studies.
The study found that consumers based their beliefs on inflation of those cheap goods which are frequently purchased. One of the advantages of the adoption of a common currency is the reduction of the risk associated with changes in currency exchange rates.
It has been found that the introduction of the euro created "significant reductions in market risk exposures for nonfinancial firms both in and outside Europe".
The introduction of the euro seems to have had a strong effect on European financial integration. According to a study on this question, it has "significantly reshaped the European financial system, especially with respect to the securities markets [ As of January , and since the introduction of the euro, interest rates of most member countries particularly those with a weak currency have decreased.
Some of these countries had the most serious sovereign financing problems. The evidence on the convergence of prices in the eurozone with the introduction of the euro is mixed.
Several studies failed to find any evidence of convergence following the introduction of the euro after a phase of convergence in the early s.
A study suggests that the introduction of the euro has had a positive effect on the amount of tourist travel within the EMU, with an increase of 6.
The ECB targets interest rates rather than exchange rates and in general, does not intervene on the foreign exchange rate markets.
This is because of the implications of the Mundell—Fleming model , which implies a central bank cannot without capital controls maintain interest rate and exchange rate targets simultaneously, because increasing the money supply results in a depreciation of the currency.
In the years following the Single European Act , the EU has liberalised its capital markets and, as the ECB has inflation targeting as its monetary policy , the exchange-rate regime of the euro is floating.
Sialidases, or neuraminidases, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases, but are also produced by many non-pathogenic bacteria.
Bacterial sialidases are very variable in size, often possessing domains in addition to the catalytic dom Bacterial sialidases are very variable in size, often possessing domains in addition to the catalytic domain.
The sialidase from the non-pathogenic soil bacterium Micromonospora viridifaciens is secreted in two forms with molecular weights of 41 kDa or 68 kDa, depending on the nature of the carbohydrate used to induce expression.
Map of Europe with the denomination shown in Latin characters. It features the word "Andorra" below and the year of minting.
The Austrian flag is hatched below the denomination which is against the new rules for national designs and hence will be changed at some point on the right hand side.
The year appears on the left-hand side. To the right-hand side among the stars was the kings monogram , a letter "A", underneath a crown.
The year is lower down, also among the stars. The date was also moved out and placed beneath the effigy and included two symbols either side left: signature mark of the master of the mint, right: mint mark.
He subsequently replaced Albert on Belgian coins. Idol of Pomos , a prehistoric sculpture dating from the 30th century BC, is an example of the island's historic civilisation and art.
The coin was designed by Pertti Mäkinen and commemorates the 80th anniversary of the independence of Finland. The first series included the initial of the mint master of the Mint of Finland, Raimo Makkonen an M , to the left side of the horizon.
Changes in the mint mark occurred several times since A stylised tree which symbolises life, continuity and growth upon a hexagon l'hexagone is often used to refer to France due to its broadly hexagonal shape.
The stars themselves are stylised, linked together by a pattern of lines. The date is located towards the bottom between the stars and the mint marks are located at the top.
The German coat of arms the German eagle which symbolises German sovereignty. The date appears at the base of the eagle and the gold behind the stars is etched to give visual effect.
Based on a 5th-century BC four- drachma coin from Athens. The coin is of an owl a symbol of Athens with an olive branch to the top left.
The mint's mark is to the top and the date on the bottom side among the stars. The harp motif was designed by Jarlath Hayes.
The 15th-century " Vitruvian Man " drawing by Leonardo da Vinci which depicted the ideal proportions of a human body. Leonardo's work is highly symbolic as it represents the Renaissance focus on man as the measure of all things, and has simultaneously a round shape that fits the coin perfectly.
As Carlo Azeglio Ciampi observed, this represents the "coin to the service of Man", instead of Man to the service of money.
The year is to the right of the human body and the mint mark to the left. The Latvian maiden with "Latvijas Republika" written either side.
Vytis symbol of the coat of arms and the word "Lietuva", which means "Lithuania". The twelve stars, symbols of the EU, surrounds the Vytis.